Grasshopper Background Images

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Submitted by on Jan 6, 2020
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They are very beautifully coloured including the shades of light green, brown, red or even orange coloured. They live on the grasses. Children love playing with them. They are called grasshoppers. Grasshoppers belong to the phylum Arthropoda and class Insecta. Class Insecta encompasses all the insects found all over the world. Grasshoppers are also insects belonging to the order Orthoptera. They are completely different from the crickets. The close relatives of grasshoppers are the locusts which have the capability to change their colour and prefer to pass their life cycle in the solitary as well as the migratory phases.

Features

The antennae present on the head of the grasshoppers are very short as compared to other members of Orthoptera and their ovipositors are also short. Mandibles are well developed for cutting the food. Some species are also capable of producing sound either by rubbing their hind femurs with the wings or with the abdomen and this process is termed as stridulation. If tympana are present then it is present on the sides of the first abdominal segment. The hind femora are generally very long and are used for jumping and leaping. Both hind and fore wings are present but the hind wings are membranous and the fore wings are coriaceous and are not suitable for flight. Females are generally larger than males but with short ovipositors. Males bear a single unpaired plate at the end of the abdomen while females bear two pairs of valves at the last abdominal segment which is used for digging into the soil for performing the act of egg laying. About 2,400 genera of grasshoppers are known and 11,000 species are known. The tropical wet forests also contain some species still unidentified. Grasshoppers are chiefly tropical.

Digestion and Excretion

The digestive system of grasshoppers is made up of foregut also called as the stomodaeum which includes the mouth region, the midgut also called as the mesenteron and the hind gut which comprises the anal region and also called as the proctodaeum. The mouth leads to the muscular pharynx which later on passes to the crop and the esophagus. Esophagus finally terminates into the Malpighian tubules which are the chief organs of excretion. The hindgut terminates as anus. Major portion of digestion is completed in the midgut but the digestion of some left residue completes in the hindgut. The chief composition of the excretory matter encompasses dry pellets of uric acid, urea and amino acids. The dry pellets minimize loss of excess water from the body. Digestive enzymes are secreted by the salivary glands as well as the midgut. The chief enzymes secreted by the midgut include protease, lipase, amylase and invertase. Other enzymes are also secreted by the midgut. The diet of the grasshoppers also affects the type of enzyme secreted.

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Nervous System

The nervous system of the grasshoppers consists of ganglia and loose groups of nerve cells somewhat advanced as compared to that of the cnidarians. The ganglia in grasshoppers are basically present in each segment of the body but that present in the head is the largest and is considered as the brain. Neuropile is also present for the transmission of the signals from the brain. The sense organs are located on the exterior of the body in the form of tiny hairs or sensilla which consist of a sense cell and a nerve fiber and are responsible for acting towards any stimulus. Although sensilla are present all over the body but they are very much dense on the antennae, palps and the cerci. Tympanal organs are also present for reception of the sound. The sensilla are connected to the brain by the neuropile.

Reproduction

The reproductive system of the grasshoppers consists of the gonads, ducts which carry the sexual products outside the body and the accessory glands. In male grasshoppers the testes consists of a large number of follicles which are responsible for holding the spermatocytes which mature and form packets of spermatozoa.

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