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What You Need to Know About Ice

Ice is one of those “foolish” questions. Ice is the freezing water. The water molecules are made from an oxygen atom bound to two hydrogen atoms. They form what a layperson would call the shape of the shallow “V,” with two atoms of hydrogen on the outside and an oxygen atom in the middle. From about 32° F to about 212° F, the water is in a liquid form. In liquid water, hydrogen atoms are constantly making and breaking bonds with other hydrogen atoms. These bonds are strong enough to protect water changes in steam, but freely enough that the molecules move freely.

If you apply heat, molecules absorb energy from a heat source and become more energetic. About 212° F, the bonds between the hydrogen atoms of water molecules are disrupted, and the molecules are released into the air in the form of water vapor.

At the other end of the scale, slow the molecules up to about 32° F and hydrogen atoms are locked together as a pattern that forms a crystal. These crystals take up more space than free-flowing molecules of liquid water, so that ice has a lower density than water, and can float.

You can have fun with the process of water crystallization. As already mentioned, smooth water forms a solid mass of about 32° F. However, if another substance is mixed with water to form a solution, the atoms of this substance can affect the ability of hydrogen atoms to form rigid compounds. This will change the temperature at which water freezes.

How to make Hot Ice at home – Amazing Science Experiment – Video by “Home Science”

What is the Temperature?

Temperature is a measure of the velocity (or energy) of atoms in a given substance. A more formal “temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy possessed by the particles of the object.” Atoms are always moving. The faster the movement, the more energy it contains. If a substance with fast atoms moving collides with a solid at slower atoms, the energy of the high-speed atom wants to go to the substance to slower the moving atoms. When these two substances have the same temperature, scientists call it “thermal equilibrium.”

What is Heat?


Heat is energy, clean and simple, but it’s energy in motion. “Heat is the transfer of energy from an object with a higher temperature to the object at a lower temperature.”

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