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Light has always been a source of inspiration for humanity in the history of mankind. Light is bright, which gives humans life. The light emanating from the stars, including the sun, has always amazed people. If there was no light, there was no life. The light of stars controlled sailors for centuries, provided signs of astrology, helped in the calendar, time and knowledge of seasonal patterns.

There was always a discussion about the nature of light. It was Newton who proposed the theory that light consists of particles or corpuscles. The light had to be a beam of particles moving at a very high speed. His theory faced opposition from Christian Huygens, who claims that light is propagated by waves forming ridges and corridors. Then the behavior of light is understood very little, and there was not a big breakthrough in the theory of light.

The main source of light on Earth is the Sun. Sunlight provides the energy that green plants use to create sugar, mainly in the form of starches, which release energy to living beings that destroy them. This process of photosynthesis provides almost all the energy used by living beings. Historically, another important source of light for people was fire, from ancient fires to modern kerosene lamps. With the development of electric lighting and electrical systems, electric lighting effectively replaced fire. Some species of animals generate their own light – a process called bioluminescence. For example, lightning strikes use light to locate mates, and vampire squids use them to hide themselves from prey.


The main properties of visible light are intensity, direction of propagation, frequency spectrum or wavelength and polarization, and the vacuum velocity of 299, 792, 458, meters per second is one of the basic constants of nature. Obviously, visible light, like all types of electromagnetic radiation (EMF), always moves at this speed in a vacuum.

In physics, the term light sometimes refers to electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength, visible or not. In this sense, gamma rays, X-rays, microwaves and radio waves are also light. Like all types of electromagnetic radiation, visible light spreads like waves.

However, the energy transmitted by the waves is absorbed in separate places in which the particles are absorbed. The absorbed energy of electromagnetic waves is called a photon and represents a quantum of light. When a wave of light is transformed and absorbed as a photon, the energy of the wave instantly turns into one place, and this place is where the photon “arrives”. This is what is called the contraction of the wave function. This double wave and partial nature of light is known as the duality of waves and particles. The study of light, known as optics, is an important area of ​​research in modern physics.

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