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Sometimes they scare us with their appearance. Their very thin, long legs and hairy bodies resemble a monster. These awful animals are spiders. Spiders belong to the largest phylum in the animal kingdom of arthropods and a class of arachnids. Spiders have eight legs with well-developed chelicerae turn into fangs for injecting poison into the body of the victim. They breathe air. Spiders together make up the largest population of arachnids and the seventh-ranking species present in the whole world, compared to other organisms. They are cosmopolitan in distribution but absent in Antarctica. They do not colonize the sea and air.

The body structure of the spider differs from other arthropods in dividing two tagmata, the cephalothorax, and abdomen, and two are connected with a small structure of pedicel. They have antennae similar to insects. A primitive group of spiders, called Mesothelae, had a well-developed nervous system, compared to all other arthropods, consisting of a large ganglion fused in one mass in the cephalothorax. Spiders have muscle enlargement in the limbs and use hydraulic pressure to expand their limbs.

The abdomen has a well-developed and modified appendages called “spinnerets” used to make silk from six different types of silk glands immersed in the abdomen. Spider webs differ from each other in shape, size, and mount of the silk thread used for its construction. Spiders adapt various striking methods of catching their prey with crimping their prey in a sticky net and also shows facial expressions. Most species hunt with a sense of vibration, but the spices of the genus Portia have a well-developed sense of sight. Spider guts are very narrow, so they can not eat solid food. They wipe the food with the help of digestive enzymes and digested food with pedipalps since they are not true jaws.

In the spiders identified three classes of pigments and included ommochromes, bilins, and guanine. Many spiders use camouflage as a protective measure. Some species of spiders also show social behavior. Scientists believe that spiders have evolved to 100 million years ago. A spider bite is the cause of some symptoms, such as a headache, redness, pain, itching, shortness of breath, muscle cramps, etc. Some spiders are also a source of weakness for people in some countries. Tarantulas are welded and eaten by some people.

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Spiders are useful, but also dangerous, but a very important part of our ecosystem.

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